Difference between revisions of "Installing a new webserver"

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(Basic Debian and network setup)
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= Basic Debian and network setup =
 
= Basic Debian and network setup =
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
apt-get install mysql-server openssh-server proftpd apache2 libapache2-mod-perl2 libapache2-mod-php5 php5 php5-cli php5-ffmpeg php5-gd php5-imagick php5-mcrypt php5-mhash php5-mysql php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl php5-curl php-apc snmp snmpd iotop mtop apachetop iptstate atsar postfix popa3d shorewall vim awstats bmon nscd sshfs mc zip unzip bzip2 arj spamassassin pyzor razor ncftp rsync phpmyadmin quota ntpdate ntp vacation pdnsd
+
apt-get install mysql-server openssh-server proftpd apache2 libapache2-mod-perl2 libapache2-mod-php php php-cli php-gd php-imagick php-mcrypt php-mysql php-xmlrpc2 php-curl php-apcu snmp snmpd iotop mtop apachetop iptstate atsar postfix popa3d shorewall vim awstats bmon nscd sshfs mc zip unzip bzip2 arj rsync phpmyadmin  
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Line 518: Line 518:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
Alias /awstatsicon/ /usr/share/awstats/icon/
 
Alias /awstatsicon/ /usr/share/awstats/icon/
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
== rewrite stuff / redirect ==
 +
Get rid of the www in the domain name (make sure you do this in the 443 section of the virtualhost after you redirect from http -> https)
 +
<pre>
 +
RewriteEngine On
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.yourdomain.com [NC]
 +
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://yourdomain.com/$1 [L,R=301]
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
Or to add the www
 +
<pre>
 +
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
 +
RewriteEngine on
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^domain\.com [NC]
 +
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.domain.com/$1 [L,R=301]
 +
</IfModule>
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  

Revision as of 09:01, 14 June 2019

Basic Debian and network setup

apt-get install mysql-server openssh-server proftpd apache2 libapache2-mod-perl2 libapache2-mod-php php php-cli php-gd php-imagick php-mcrypt php-mysql php-xmlrpc2 php-curl php-apcu snmp snmpd iotop mtop apachetop iptstate atsar postfix popa3d shorewall vim awstats bmon nscd sshfs mc zip unzip bzip2 arj rsync phpmyadmin 

Also ensure backports are enabled by adding

deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main

to /etc/apt/sources.list

Then

sudo apt-get install python-certbot-apache -t jessie-backports

For Letsencrypt.

pdnsd - use resolvconf configuration

Set up networking in /etc/network/interfaces

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
allow-hotplug eth0
#auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
        address 192.168.0.112
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        network 192.168.0.0
        broadcast 192.168.0.255
#       gateway 192.168.0.1
        dns-nameservers 213.75.63.36 213.75.63.70 192.168.0.1
#       dns-nameservers 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2
#       dns-search mynet.int internal.mynet.int ops.mynet.int

auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static
        address 188.204.140.195
        netmask 255.255.255.224
        network 188.204.140.192
        broadcast 188.204.140.223
        gateway 188.204.140.193
        dns-nameservers 213.75.63.36 213.75.63.70 192.168.0.1

NB for dns-search or dns-domain to work in the above stanzas you need to have the resolvconf package installed. Otherwise you will have to add the following to /etc/resolve.conf

search mynet.int
search internal.mynet.int
...

Debian NetworkConfiguration wiki page

Debian reference manual Chapter 5. Network setup

SNMP

SNMP

sshd chroot for sftp

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

#Subsystem      sftp    /usr/libexec/openssh/sftp-server
Subsystem       sftp    internal-sftp

at the end

Match Group sftp
        ChrootDirectory /var/www/www.sitename.ext/
        ForceCommand internal-sftp
        AllowTcpForwarding no

or per user

Match User myguy
        ChrootDirectory /var/www/www.sitename.ext/
        ForceCommand internal-sftp
        AllowTcpForwarding no

systemctl restart sshd

Note: make sure that the ChrootDirectory itself is owned by root!

Proftpd (depreciated)

/etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf add

DefaultRoot                     ~/../../

Also add /bin/false to /etc/shells

This allows users to log in with ftp, but not with ssh

For AWStats

LogFormat awstats "%t   %h      %u      %m      %f      %s      %b"
ExtendedLog /var/log/xferlog read,write awstats
TransferLog none
RequireValidShell off

Hosting scripts and directories

mkdir /home/adm_usr/webserveradmin/ -p
mkdir /opt/myhost/ -p
mkdir /opt/weblog/etc -p
mkdir /opt/weblog/src -p

copy the stuff from another webserver into these dirs and find and replace the servername in these directories.

mkdir /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/site/sitestats/ -p
mkdir /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/site/sitestats/servername.xxx.com/
mkdir /home/sites/USGP.xxx.com/logs/
mkdir /home/sites/USGP.xxx.com/sites/ftpstats
chown razor /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/site -R

APC

add

apc.shm_size=512M

to /etc/php5/apache2/conf.d/20-apc.ini

Apache2

log rotation

/etc/logrotate.d/apache2

/var/log/statistics {
        daily
        missingok
        rotate 8
        compress
}

/var/log/apache2/*.log {
        prerotate
               # Run the central statistics before rotating the logs
                /opt/myhost/statisticsSERVERNAMEweb.sh
                # Then we split the logs for the virtual hosts
                /opt/myhost/apachelogsplit.sh
                # Run the individual site stats
                /opt/myhost/sitestatistics.sh
                echo "All done for the day" >> /var/log/statistics
                date >> /var/log/statistics
        endscript
        daily
        missingok
        rotate 7
        compress
        delaycompress
        notifempty
        create 640 root adm
        sharedscripts
        postrotate
                if [ -f "`. /etc/apache2/envvars ; echo ${APACHE_PID_FILE:-/var/run/apache2.pid}`" ]; then
                        /etc/init.d/apache2 reload > /dev/null
                fi
        endscript
}
touch /var/log/statistics
mkdir /var/log/apache2/virts
mkdir /var/log/apache2/awstats

apache2 conf

/etc/apache2/apache2.conf change LogFormat and add %v to the beginning of the the combined format

LogFormat "%v %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined

And also check the values of

<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
    StartServers          100
    MinSpareServers       80
    MaxSpareServers      150
    MaxClients          250
    MaxRequestsPerChild   0
</IfModule>

and make sure

Options -Indexes

is in there!

/etc/apache2/ports.conf

NameVirtualHost *:80
Listen 80

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    NameVirtualHost *:443
    Listen 443
</IfModule>

<IfModule mod_gnutls.c>
    Listen 443
</IfModule>

Creating a proxy passthrough

/etc/apache2/apache2.conf or /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/proxy.conf

# XXX change: This forces it to proxy to the monitor server
# Requires libapache2-mod-proxy-html and a2enmod proxy
ProxyRequests Off
#ProxyPass / http://monitor.mynet.int/
#ProxyPassReverse / http://monitor.mynet.int/

ProxyPass / http://192.168.0.210/
ProxyPassReverse / http://192.168.0.210/

NB you can also do

ProxyPass /internal http://192.168.0.210/
ProxyPassReverse /internal http://192.168.0.210/

Which will make requests to http://external.domain/internal/foo go to http://192.168.0.210/foo. Note no trailing slashes!

Make sure all the proxy modules are enabled and restart the server after changes, don't reload.

/etc/apache2/sites-available/default

move this file to 000-default.conf to ensure it gets loaded first by apache

change

ServerName IPADDRESS
DocumentRoot /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/site

and add

 Redirect /stats http://servername.xxx.com/sitestats/mywraith.xxx.com/index.php
        Redirect /livestats http://servername.xxx.com/cgi-bin/awstats.pl?config=mywraith
#       AliasMatch ^/mailstats(.*) /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/mailstats/awstats.servername.mail.html
        AliasMatch ^/ftpstats(.*)  /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/ftpstats/awstats.servername.ftp.html
        <Directory /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride Options Authconfig
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
                # This directive allows us to have apache2's default start page
                # in /apache2-default/, but still have / go to the right place
        </Directory>

to the bottom

So it should look something like:

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost

        DocumentRoot /home/sites/USGP.xxx.com/site
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
        <Directory /var/www/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>

        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
        </Directory>

        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log

        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn

        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/access.log combined

    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
    <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
        Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128
    </Directory>

</VirtualHost>

make sure this links from /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default as this becomes the fallback site for any IP or domain name not otherwise used.

Lets Encrypt

Because the Debian backport version is buggy, don't just run certbot --apache but you have to run the certbot for each domain (and serveraliases) you want it to work with as such: Note - nowadays you will need to do it this way!

certbot --authenticator webroot --installer apache -d www.domain.ext -w /var/www/www.domain.ext/site/
certbot -a webroot -i apache -d www.domain.ext -w /var/www/www.domain.ext/site/

certbot -a webroot -i apache -d www.domain.ext,domain.ext,other.domain.ext -w /var/www/www.domain.ext/site/

After adding / changing certificates make sure you reload the apache2 server.

If you see a warning with a lock and a yellow triangle from Firefox it means the page is serving mixed content (http + https). When inspecting the certificate itself it will look like there is no verifing agency for the certificate. This has nothing to do with the validity or verification of the certificate, it's purely there because of mixed content.

You can inspect the history of a certificate with the following URL

https://crt.sh/?q=%25linkielist.com

To renew certificates (put this in a cronjob)

certbot renew

To test

certbot renew --dry-run

Certbot documentation for apache + jessie

OLD


certbot -d www.domain.ext -d domain.ext -d www.alias.ext -d alias.ext --apache

/etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl

generate a certificate using certbot for the servername

certbot certonly edgarinet.edgarbv.com

them move the file to 000-default-ssl.conf to ensure it gets loaded first

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
<VirtualHost *:443>
Alias /roundcube /var/lib/roundcube
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost

        DocumentRoot /var/www
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
        <Directory /var/www/>
                Options FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>

        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
        LogLevel warn

        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ssl_access.log combined
        <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        </FilesMatch>
        <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        </Directory>
        BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/edgarinet.edgarbv.com/fullchain.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/edgarinet.edgarbv.com/privkey.pem
Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
</VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

depreciated /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl

Don't do this because LetsEncrypt!

Because we edited ports conf, we need to change:

<VirtualHost *:443>

and of course very important are

       SSLEngine on
       SSLCertificateFile    /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
       SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
       SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/

default-ssl should look something like

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
<VirtualHost *:443>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
        DocumentRoot /var/www
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
        <Directory /var/www/>
                Options FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
        </Directory>
        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
        LogLevel warn
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ssl_access.log combined
        SSLEngine on
        SSLCertificateFile    /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
        SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
        SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
        <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        </FilesMatch>
        <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        </Directory>
        BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
        BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
</VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

make sure that this links from /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default-ssl as we need this to be the first SNI site.

Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP)

[1]

Disable SSLv3

/etc/apache2/mods-available/ssl.conf Make sure it has SSLv3 disabled, check the line:

SSLProtocol All -SSLv2 -SSLv3

Standard site

Should look something like:

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerName robin.xxx.com
        DocumentRoot /home/sites/robin.xxx.com/site
        ServerAdmin red@email.com
        ServerAlias xxx.com
        Redirect /stats http://USGP.xxx.com/sitestats/robin.xxx.com/index.php
        Redirect /livestats http://robin.xxx.com/cgi-bin/awstats.pl?config=robin.xxx.com
        <Directory /home/sites/robin.xxx.com/site/>
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride All
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log
        LogLevel warn
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/access.log combined
        ServerSignature On
</VirtualHost>

ensure sites have indexes

cp /var/www/index.html /home/sites
cp /var/www/index.html /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/site/

listvirts

/etc/apache2/listvirts (NB has to start at group 100!)

# nb make sure first site after the original starts at 100!
mywraith.xxx.com - site0
some.site.com - site100

OLD

create /etc/apache2/sites-available/82.95.91.75 with DocumentRoot /home/sites by hand!

/OLD

create /etc/apache2/sites-available/servername.xxx.com

link it in in sites-enabled

check both sites to see if they go to different indexes.

a2enmod rewrite (or a2enmod for options list)

vi /etc/apache2/conf.d/awstats

Alias /awstatsicon/ /usr/share/awstats/icon/

rewrite stuff / redirect

Get rid of the www in the domain name (make sure you do this in the 443 section of the virtualhost after you redirect from http -> https)

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.yourdomain.com [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://yourdomain.com/$1 [L,R=301]

Or to add the www

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^domain\.com [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.domain.com/$1 [L,R=301]
</IfModule>

Post configuration

AWStats

cp /usr/share/doc/awstats/examples/apache.conf /etc/apache2/conf.d/awstats


Make sure that /var/log/apache2 is readable by www-data

chgrp /var/log/apache2/ www-data -R
touch /var/log/statistics

/etc/awstats/model.conf

tar xzvf /usr/share/doc/awstats/examples/awstats.model.conf.gz
cp /usr/share/doc/awstats/examples/awstats.model.conf /etc/awstats/model.conf

Changes in the model.conf for our scripts:

LogFile="thislogfile"
LogFormat="%virtualname %host %other %logname %time1 %methodurl %code %bytesd %refererquot %uaquot"
SiteDomain="thissitedomain"
HostAliases="localhost 127.0.0.1 REGEX[thisdomname\.(thisdomext)$]"
DNSLookup=1
DirData="/var/log/apache2/awstats"
DirIcons="/awstatsicon"
AllowFullYearView=3
SaveDatabaseFilesWithPermissionsForEveryone=1
KeepBackupOfHistoricFiles=1
DebugMessages=1
cp /etc/awstats/model.conf /etc/awstats/awstats.servername.xxx.com.conf

Edit the following directives:

LogFile="/var/log/apache2/access.log"
SiteDomain="servername.xxx.com"
HostAliases="localhost 127.0.0.1 REGEX[servername.xxx\.(com|nl)$]"

Create the index.php file in /home/sites/servername.xxx.com/site/sitestats/servername.xxx.com/

<?
Header('Location: http://servername.xxx.com/sitestats/servername.xxx.com/awstats.zpress.xxx.com.html')
?>

Also do this for the serverIP

copy /etc/awstats/awstats.servername* (ftp / mail / web)

run the statisticsrun in /etc/logrotate.d/apache2 by hand to see how it all goes! ie.

cat /opt/myhost/statisticsSERVERNAME.sh

and run this line by line.

cp /opt/weblog/src/weblog_files/graphs/ /home/sites/USGP.xxx.com/site/webloggraphs/ -R

testing

When testing, it's sometimes useful to delete the following:

/var/cache/awstats/* -R <- generated static files dir

/var/lib/awstats/* <- database directory

in /etc/cron.d/awstats are the run commands to generate the files.

Firewall

Shorewall

Mail

See Installing a new mailserver

For instructions on

Postfix and Procmail, as well as Dovecot (for mail pickup), Amavis-new and ClamAV for antivirus and Roundcube webmail

NB don't forget to

postmap virtual
postmap transport

spamassassin (knowledgebase page)

other stuff

change the mysql password

set up disk quotas (Quota Howto)

backup scripts in /etc/crontab

00 2 * * *      root    /opt/myhost/mysqldatasnapdaily.sh
00 3 * * 7      root    /opt/myhost/mysqldatasnapweekly.sh
00 4 1 * *      root    /opt/myhost/mysqldatasnapmonthly.sh

and

mkdir /home/store
mkdir /home/store/daily
mkdir /home/store/weekly
mkdir /home/store/monthly

OCSInventory

Add to Cacti